Cortical abnormalities in adults and adolescents with major depression based on brain scans from 20 cohorts worldwide in the ENIGMA Major Depressive Disorder Working Group
Authors: Schmaal L, Hibar DP, Sämann PG, Hall GB, Baune BT, Jahanshad N, Cheung JW, van Erp TGM, Bos D, Ikram MA, Vernooij MW, Niessen WJ, Tiemeier H, Hofman A, Wittfeld K, Grabe HJ, Janowitz D, Bülow R, Selonke M, Völzke H, Grotegerd D, Dannlowski U, Arolt V, Opel N, Heindel W, Kugel H, Hoehn D, Czisch M, Couvy-Duchesne B, Rentería ME, Strike LT, Wright MJ, Mills NT, de Zubicaray GI, McMahon KL, Medland SE, Martin NG, Gillespie NA, Goya-Maldonado R, Gruber O, Krämer B, Hatton SN, Lagopoulos J, Hickie IB, Frodl T, Carballedo A, Frey EM, van Velzen LS, Penninx BWJH, van Tol MJ, van der Wee NJ, Davey CG, Harrison BJ, Mwangi B, Cao B, Soares JC, Veer IM, Walter H, Schoepf D, Zurowski B, Konrad C, Schramm E, Normann C, Schnell K, Sacchet MD, Gotlib IH, MacQueen GM, Godlewska BR, Nickson T, McIntosh AM, Papmeyer M, Whalley HC, Hall J, Sussmann JE, Li M, Walter M, Aftanas L, Brack I, Bokhan NA, Thompson PM, Veltman DJ
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Journal: Mol Psychiatry. 2017 Jun;22(6):900-909. doi: 10.1038/mp.2016.60.

The neuro-anatomical substrates of major depressive disorder (MDD) are still not well understood, despite many neuroimaging studies over the past few decades. Here we present the largest ever worldwide study by the ENIGMA (Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis) Major Depressive Disorder Working Group on cortical structural alterations in MDD. Structural T1-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans from 2148 MDD patients and 7957 healthy controls were analysed with harmonized protocols at 20 sites around the world. To detect consistent effects of MDD and its modulators on cortical thickness and surface area estimates derived from MRI, statistical effects from sites were meta-analysed separately for adults and adolescents. Adults with MDD had thinner cortical gray matter than controls in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), anterior and posterior cingulate, insula and temporal lobes (Cohen's d effect sizes: -0.10 to -0.14). These effects were most pronounced in first episode and adult-onset patients (>21 years). Compared to matched controls, adolescents with MDD had lower total surface area (but no differences in cortical thickness) and regional reductions in frontal regions (medial OFC and superior frontal gyrus) and primary and higher-order visual, somatosensory and motor areas (d: -0.26 to -0.57). The strongest effects were found in recurrent adolescent patients. This highly powered global effort to identify consistent brain abnormalities showed widespread cortical alterations in MDD patients as compared to controls and suggests that MDD may impact brain structure in a highly dynamic way, with different patterns of alterations at different stages of life.